Urticaria is a disease characterized by itching and rash of blisters due to edema of the papillary layer of the skin.The name "urticaria" is given because of blisters in this disease have the same appearance as blisters with "burn" nettles.
attack of urticaria differ ephemerality, it quickly appears and disappears quickly, but with repeated outbreaks of hives can last for years, taking a chronic relapsing course.
symptoms of urticaria .Itching hives usually precedes the appearance of blisters.Mechanical stimulation of the receptor apparatus of the skin by scratching causes the first flushing, against which then appears pale towering red Blister (urtica).
Due to the increasing edema and vasospasm blister red becomes grayish-white, on the periphery of its area is erythematous pink-red color.Some blisters are typically rounded shape, but as a result of their peripheral growth and mergers can form large plaques urticaria diverse, sometimes bizarre shapes.Urticaria elements in a few hours disappear.
in the genital area, around the eyes swelling often reaches a considerable size (urticaria gigantea).This gigantic swelling, usually frightening patients quickly emerges and quickly within a few hours or days disappears.
are the following major clinical variations urticaria: 1) acute urticaria (urticaria acuta);2) chronic recurrent hives (urticaria chronica recidivans);3) chronic persistent papular rash (urticaria chronica papulosa persistans).
Symptoms and Treatment Urticaria and Angioedema Urticaria Treatment krapivnitsyPolietiologicheskaya form krapivnitsyAllergiya to common lekarstvaAllergeny
Acute urticaria (urticaria acuta).Among the overall health appear strong agonizing itching and blisters.The disease is sometimes accompanied by a significant impairment of the general condition of the patient: malaise, chills, temperatures can reach 38-39 "(" hives ") However, most attacks of hives are not accompanied by fever Urticaria extends to more or less large areas of the skin if the disease begins...at night, the patient wakes up from itching, which can reach great intensity. Drawing attention to the rash, the patient in big trouble awaits in the morning to seek medical help. But what is his surprise when the doctor during the inspection finds no rash. for the doctor insuch cases of the patient survey, it is clear that it was a rash. After oral laxatives in many cases, hives are not repeated.
Chronic recurrent urticaria (urticaria chronica recidivans). In some cases come relapse of urticaria, in some patients, repetitive, and shall communicatethem to exhaustion due to the painful itching and insomnia.The disease has been delayed for many months and even years.
Chronic persistent papular urticaria (urticaria chronica papulosa persistans).If the cause of the hives, in the long term affects, the swelling joins cellular infiltrate and urticaria elements are transformed into papular;rash becomes more resistant and lasts for weeks.And as there are occasionally new, urticaria elements, repeating the same cycle of development, the rash lasts many weeks and even months.
In some patients, due to violation of capillary permeability for exudate mixed with red blood cells, which are subject to decay, and pigmented (urticaria cum pigmentatione) as a result of rash elements.
should not be confused with the latter kind of pigment hives (urticaria pigmentosa) disease such as birthmarks, beginning in early childhood and have essentially nothing to do with urticaria.Histological examination with urticaria pigmentosa detects clusters of mast cells and blood vessels around the pigment surface skin network.Clinically observed on the skin pigmentation spots, which after rubbing a finger pulp converted into elements of urticaria.
Etiology and pathogenesis .The causes of urticaria are diverse.The numerous exogenous and endogenous factors in the overall change in reactivity can cause hives.In some individuals, under the influence of cold urticaria attack occurs, whereas the vast majority of people, this physiological stimulus does not cause any pathological effects.
Some people do not usually suffer from hives, the total reactivity and responsiveness of cutaneous vessels is so changed that the weak mechanical stimulation - wooden handle percussion hammer or special dermography - causes persistent urticarial dermographism.
many nutrients, such as eggs, mushrooms, oysters, crabs, canned food, can also cause hives in individuals, whereas the vast majority of people in the use of them is not there any side effects.
The same can be said about these medicines, like morphine, arsenobenzolnye drugs, quinine, antipyrine, and others. In persons with increased vascular-nervous irritability introduction of these substances into the skin by a needle prick can cause a blister.Foreign proteins when administered parenterally into the body often cause urticaria.As an example, serum sickness, accompanied by the emergence of the phenomena of anaphylaxis with urticaria and urticaria, sometimes appears after a blood transfusion.
bites of many insects - mosquitoes, gnats, fleas and skin irritation insect caterpillars can cause not only itching, rashes and urticaria.
numerous endogenous factors: auto-intoxication from the intestine for digestive disorders, worm infestation, metabolic disorders, endocrine correlations, hidden pockets of chronic infection and other disorders, under certain conditions, can cause hives.
urticaria patients observed a pronounced allergic condition, often caused by intolerance to any food substances (strawberries, eggs, canned foods, etc..).Often the rash is caused by autosensibilization, increased sensitivity to cold (cold urticaria), solar radiation (solar urticaria), and so on. N.
in the pathogenesis of urticaria plays an important role overall health, the state of its vascular-nervous excitability.Currently, there are a significant number of clinical and experimental observations indicate that the overall reactivity of the organism depends on the functional state of the nervous system of the patient during the disease, and also in the period preceding the occurrence of the disease.
The clinic has to routinely observe that begins urticaria or recurs after neuro-psychic experiences, nervous tension.
histopathology.The papillary dermis is marked dilation of blood vessels with mild perivascular infiltrate consisting mainly of lymphocytes.There is also swelling of collagen and elastin fibers, as well as a mild swelling in the Malpighian layer of the epidermis.Urticaria Treatment at home diagnosis in typical cases is not difficult.However, it should be remembered that urticaria may occur in many diseases of the skin, such as dermatitis herpetiformis Duhring, with neurodermatitis, eczema and other diseases.urticaria diagnosis can only be put in when the urticaria is not accompanied by any other rashes or dominate the clinical picture.
Treatment .For successful treatment of a patient with urticaria is first necessary to determine the cause of the disease, which, unfortunately, is not always possible.
1. The first thing to bear in mind the possibility of auto-intoxication and autosensibilization from the intestine, dietary error.If you can not even manage to establish with certainty the nature of nutritional disorders, yet hives each patient should be advised to cleanse the bowel with laxatives and assign a light milky-vegetable diet for a few days before the termination of the disease.
2. In many cases it is useful to apply the general desensitizing agents: intravenous infusion of a 30% solution of sodium hyposulfite 10 ml daily, up to 10-15 injections;Intravenous infusion of 10% solution of calcium chloride at 5-10 ml every other day, up to 10 injections.
3. Some patients have a good therapeutic effect is given ingestion of baking soda or magnesia pinch 2-3 times a day.The same favorable result has Borjomi and other alkaline mineral water.
4. diphenhydramine may be useful as an antipruritic agent, especially when hard flowing hives.
5. In stubborn cases of recurrent urticaria, all these measures often do not reach the goal.Then it is necessary to resort to other therapeutic effects, primarily to hypnosuggestive therapy, which should be combined with the conditioned reflex therapy, t. E. With other medication and physiotherapy facilities, supporting the use of suggestion in hypnosis.
6. Patients with chronic recurrent urticaria can be given corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone) under the special scheme, taking into account contraindications (Eczema in the article).
7. In stubborn cases of chronic or recurrent papular urticaria recommend different physiotherapy methods: static and faradic current, ultra-violet radiation erythemal doses by zones, d'Arsonval currents, baths, showers, wet wraps.
8. Good results are given treatment at health resorts (Matsesta, Pyatigorsk, Tskhaltubo, Belokurikha, etc.) With hydrogen sulfide and radon springs.Sea bathing also act favorably, boosting metabolism and providing a beneficial effect on neuro-psychological condition of the patient.
9. Treatment urticaria in children should be limited mainly to the establishment of proper eating regime and elimination of food substances which may sensitize the organism.It is impossible to overfeed children, and we must ensure regular bowel action.If you suspect the presence of worms pas is necessary to make the analysis and conduct deworming.
10. Outside treatment for hives is not significant.Temporary calm itching is achieved by using a liquid paste, the existing cooling.