Anatomical and physiological features of the dental system in children

Category Symptoms And Treatment | August 12, 2017 17:57

course and the development of diseases of the teeth in children, as well as the child's body's response to disease processes in the mouth have their own characteristics compared to those of adults.The study of these features, as well as dental treatment and oral mucosa diseases in relation to these features are the subject of pediatric dentistry.

Children anatomic and physiological features of the dental system lie in its continuous development and restructuring.The growth of the jaw bones, eruption, formation and resorption of the roots of deciduous teeth, having a close connection with developing the rudiments of permanent teeth, the high reactivity of the child's body - all this creates its own peculiarities, peculiar child's body, and requires a special study of clinic and treatment in relation to the growing organism.

development of masticatory apparatus of the child is divided into 3 periods, each of which has its own characteristics: first - the period of milk teeth, the second - the change of t
eeth, the third - the permanent tooth.

first period .Bookmark and formation of the crown of deciduous teeth occur in utero.A newborn baby in the mouth missing teeth.The boundary between the entrance and proper oral gingival rollers are tightly meshed with each other.

At six months of age begin to erupt dairy

Teething - is a physiological process that occurs under normal conditions, without any disorders.In humans, there are two of eruption, or a change of teeth.The first eruption begins with and ends 6 months to 3 years.

The first sign of incipient tooth eruption - the appearance of the gingival edge elevation roller, called dental mound.Dental mound appears as a result of pressure on the mucous membrane of the erupting tooth.The mucous membrane at this point is compressed, pale, atrophied and thinned, breaks, exposing the crown of the tooth.The appearance of the entire crown (to the tooth neck) over the surface of the gums is called a full eruption.

As tooth eruption formed the gingival margin, which is fused with the epithelium nasmitovoy coated tooth enamel.Where epithelium departs from the enamel surface, the bottom of the periodontal pocket occurs.

physiological signs of teething: teething on certain dates, and the pairing of the eruption sequence.

terms and specific sequence of teething are set on the basis of numerous observations.Pair eruption is the simultaneous occurrence of similar teeth right and left sides.

appearance of milk teeth are often preceded by "itching" gums and drooling."Itching" gums is due to the growing pressure on the tooth sensitive nerve endings.Drooling associated with the physiology of the child in 6 months: increase production of the salivary glands, the shallow bottom of the oral cavity and that at 6 months the child first begin to give a vertical position, and adjust the swallowing of saliva, he has not yet learned - that leads to saliva leaking from the mouth.

Dates teething: 6-8 months, cut through the central incisors;8-12 months - lateral incisors, in 12-16 months - the first molars in 16-20 months - fangs in 20-30 months - the second molars.

penetrate symmetrically with the same name teeth right and left.

first always teething lower jaw, and then appear with the same name teeth on the upper jaw.The exception is the fourth teeth.In this case, first appear on the upper teeth, then the lower jaw.

bite baby milk consists of 4 incisors, 2 canines and 4 molars on each jaw.Premolars in milk bite missing.A total of 20 milk teeth bite.

mechanism teething finally clarified.For a long time teething tried to reduce to a purely mechanical process.Thus, there was provided a 'root theory "according to which the tooth crown moves to the mucosal surface due to the enhanced growth of the root.However, often there are cases when teething, the development of which the root is over or the roots of which have not yet formed;These phenomena can not be explained by "root" theory and talk about its insolvency.According

view GV Yasvoina, the reason for the eruption of the tooth is differentiating tissue dental papilla.Cell differentiation and development increases the pressure inside the tooth germ, which causes the tooth to move along the path of least resistance - to the free gingival margin.

greatest interest is the view Landsberger, according to which in the course of its development, the tooth does not move and goes out of contact with the surrounding tissues.tooth movement - the apparent phenomenon.Tooth eruption is accompanied by two opposing phenomena: a) resorption of the bone tissue of the alveoli, which separates the tooth from the mucous membrane;b) The construction of the jaw bone substance between the body and the growing root.

Teething is the expression of growth and development of the organism takes place along with the growth, development and the corresponding restructuring of tissues.Therefore, when considering the mechanism and causes of tooth eruption is necessary to consider all the facts.It is possible that the bones restructuring and an increase in pressure inside the tooth germ are the main cause and the root growth - secondary factor.

general condition of the body influences the formation and terms of teething.For teething disorders include early or, on the contrary, the later eruption, violation of pairing and consistency in eruption.Missing teeth in the dentition may be due to two factors: retention and edentulous.

Retention - teething delay.Most often it occurs in the teeth of permanent dentition.It may be a partial (whenever the crown portion was cut, and the other portion remains covert mucosa) and the complete - tooth shaped, lies in the jaw, but not cut through.

retention reasons: a) improper or very deep location of the bud;b) delay loss and early removal of milk teeth.Retention is most often observed in the wisdom teeth, canines and lateral incisors of the upper jaw.Delayed eruption of other teeth occurs rarely.Impacted teeth, putting pressure on the adjacent tooth can cause neuralgic pains.

edentulous - the lack of a tooth in the dentition and jaw.Edentulous may be partial or complete.The reason for the partial edentulous (absence of one or more teeth) can be the death of the rudiment of permanent tooth due to the spread of the former inflammation in periodontal baby tooth on the rudiment of permanent failure of mineralization of dental primordia during their formation and other reasons.Edentulous is extremely rare and is the result of damage to the tooth germs in utero life.

In addition to reducing the number of teeth in the dentition, can be observed and the increase, when there are so-called supernumerary teeth.Often they have a subulate form and erupt out of the dentition, for example in the direction of the cheek, palate, nasal cavity, and so on. d.

The clinic baby teeth are designated by Roman numerals.When a child is a change of teeth and bite becomes mixed, we are denoting milk teeth in Roman numerals, and permanent - in Arabic, can easily keep track of the ongoing change of teeth and looking at history, to know which tooth (milk or permanent) treated.

penetrate the baby teeth have not yet formed the roots.Formation of root ends well after their eruption takes place in the same sequence as teething.

Terms formation roots.cutters Group completes the formation of roots to 2 years, a group of molars - for 4 years and a group of canines - to 5 years.

Milk teeth play an important role in the body of the child's development.

Good mouthfeel of food in the mouth it provides good digestion in the stomach and a complete absorption in the intestine.Normal operation of the gastrointestinal tract requires a minimum of nutrients necessary to sustain the growing organism, without causing overload of the gastrointestinal tract.

Milk teeth have an impact on the development of the masticatory muscles and bone structure of the jaw.

With milk teeth child first takes possession of speech, therefore, they need to sound pronunciation.

The special features of the structure of the milk teeth should include a smaller thickness of the enamel and dentin cover compared to the permanent teeth.Dentin is less calcified, and therefore more malleable when working with boron, which poses a threat of accidental opening of the pulp cavity in the treatment of middle and especially deep caries.Dentinal tubules wider, so carious process flows faster.

pathology eruption of primary teeth include early and late eruption, adentia and hematoma formation.

Early eruption is more common in the lower central incisors.Sometimes children are born with teeth already erupted.The roots of the teeth are weak, often reinforced only in the mucosa.When sucking the nipple can occur chest trauma the mother, resulting in the mastitis, as well as personal injury and bridle of language itself, which is formed Decubital ulcer.Such teeth are recommended to remove (if they are poorly consolidated) or grind their cutting edge.With a good strengthening early erupting teeth removing them can cause profuse bleeding.

later teething may be due to malnutrition, the transferred diseases (rickets, etc.).

Lack of food a child needs protein, vitamins and minerals may result in abnormal eruption (violation of the terms, and the pairing sequence abnormality of tooth development).

Postponed disease in early childhood (rickets, long-term gastrointestinal disorders, infectious and other diseases, especially transferred to severe) can cause delayed eruption of teeth, enamel hypoplasia.

edentulous, or lack the rudiments of deciduous teeth, is extremely rare and is associated with malformation or damage to the rudiments of one or more of the milk teeth.

hematoma formation at the edge of the gum roller also quite rare.Clinically, at the same time there is the appearance on the edge of the gingival roll pretty busy bubble having purple-red or bluish tint.When puncture from it pours the contents of bloody, bubble decreases, and after some time (2-3 weeks) at this point is shown cutting edge erupting tooth.Such hematomas often formed in the anterior mandible.The reason for this, presumably, is vascular disorders associated with the eruption of the tooth.

second period .With 4 years of age between baby teeth appear intervals - physiological diastema, which indicates the proper development of the child's dentition system.

Lifetime milk teeth formed in a small state;for each group of teeth on average it is 3 years.The time of appearance of permanent teeth is preceded by a process of physiological root resorption of deciduous teeth, as laid rudiments of permanent teeth with lingual or palatal surface in relation to the roots of deciduous teeth, and the resolution begins with the milk surface of the tooth root, where the closest adjoins the germ of the permanent tooth.

resorption single rooted teeth begins with the palatal surfaces in upper teeth and lingual surfaces of the teeth at the bottom.

rudiments of permanent teeth multirooted lie between the roots of deciduous teeth, root resorption so much milk teeth root begins with a surface facing the mezhkornevyh gap.At the upper molars primarily dissolve buccal roots, especially the rear buccal root, and at the bottom more quickly absorbed back root.Consequently, the palatal root resorption in the upper jaw and the lower front somewhat delayed.It is necessary to know the removal of milk teeth in order to avoid the fracture has not yet resolved the root.

close relationship absorbable roots of deciduous teeth with developing the rudiments of permanent make approaches to the treatment of primary teeth with extreme caution.Errors in the treatment may lead to damage and death of rudiment of permanent tooth and complications from the child's general condition.

resorption of the roots of deciduous teeth occurs slowly, on average 2-3 years, and ends with the beginning of the change of teeth, t. E. To the top of dentition.

Knowledge of periods of formation and resorption of roots is essential in the practice of dentistry.

The third period is characterized by the appearance of the first permanent teeth and the beginning of the replacement of milk teeth to permanent.

mechanism of change of milk teeth to permanent is as follows.The rudiment of permanent tooth root is separated from the milk of thin bone plate.With the development of the rudiment of permanent tooth starts to press on the last bone septum.In the surrounding connective tissue appear osteoclasts, which break down this barrier.The process starts to go on both sides - from the root surface by osteoclasts and by the pulp.The pulp of milk teeth is gradually becoming a granulation tissue rich in blood vessels, and osteoclasts, which destroy the dentin.

process ends with complete resorption of the roots of deciduous teeth, leaving a crown that can be easily removed by children themselves or sometimes pushes growing permanent tooth.

dentition is not accompanied by any painful changes of the body of the child, as observed during the eruption of primary teeth.The exception is the wisdom teeth that erupt between the ages of 17 and 25 years of age or older.

first permanent tooth appearing in the jaw and do not have currently predecessor is the sixth of the average tooth line, or first molar.He erupt behind the primary molars.Then begins the change of milk teeth for permanent.It goes in the same sequence as going eruption of primary teeth, t. E. The first to give way to the bottom, then the upper central incisors, then the lateral incisors, and then on the site of the first molars erupt first permanent premolars, first in the upper jaw, and then on the bottom, followed by the canines, second premolars in the former second primary molars and second permanent molars.Dates eighth eruption of teeth (third molars) are impermanent, and the presence of the eighth tooth in the jaw itself is also impermanent.In some people, the eighth teeth are missing and it is not considered an anomaly.

formation of roots of permanent teeth lasts a little longer than that of milk.

Formation of the central and lateral incisors and the first permanent molar end to 10 years, premolars - to 12 years, the canines - to 13 years, second molars - to 15 years.

After the formation of the permanent teeth roots are treated in the same way as in adults.