Guinea worm disease - a bot that develops when ingested human hookworm Dracuncula medinensis.The nematode enters the body at the use of water, which are crustaceans (microcrustaceans), infected larvae Dracuncula medinensis.The patient complains of severe pain at the location of the helminth.The disease is diagnosed by examination.Dracunculiasis is treated by removing the worm from under the skin to a special winding roller.
More than 25 years ago, dracunculiasis was very common in Yemen, India, Pakistan and Africa.However, thanks to international efforts to combat dracunculiasis in 2012, just 542 cases of the disease have been recorded in Africa, which means almost complete victory over the disease.
Pathophysiology Infection often occurs when drinking water to crustaceans, nematodes infected larvae.In the human stomach copepods die and larvae emerge from crustaceans and penetrate the intestinal wall.The abdominal larvae turn into adults (the process takes about a year), mate.After mating, the male di
es and the female is pregnant through the subcutaneous tissue migrate, usually in the lower leg area.The worm is attached to the skin, and the skin on contact with the water through the skin into the water worm displays of mobile larvae, which eat crustaceans.Worms do not crawls up the skin, die and decompose, or calcined.In endemic areas, the larvae exit the water is seasonal, and the process of human infection before the larvae take about one year
Details of the parasite life cycle is presented in this picture:
1. A person becomes infected by drinking water that contains crustaceansmicrocrustaceans, infected larvae D. medinensis.
2. Crustaceans, getting into the stomach, dying, and D. medinensis larvae penetrate the wall of the stomach and intestines to the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space.
3. The larvae mature into adult hookworms, occurs mating, the males die and women migrate to the surface of the skin (mainly in the area of legs).
4. When the female larvae mature, they go into the water when in contact with human skin with water.
5. In the water, the larvae fall into the crustaceans.
6. Within two weeks of being in crustacean larvae matures and becomes dangerous to humans.
Within 10-12 months after infection, usually no symptoms are observed.Symptoms begin to appear when the worm begins to migrate to the shin.Local symptoms include intense itching and burning pain at the site of the nematode localization.Also, there is urticaria, erythema, shortness of breath and vomiting.It is believed that these symptoms develop as an allergic reaction to antigens secreted by nematodes.If you remove the worm, then the symptoms subside, the pain goes away.
In 50% of cases along the path of the worm migration develop secondary bacterial infections.
If infection occurs several years in a row, then patients have joint pain and other symptoms of arthritis.Also develops ankylosis of the joints.
Diagnosis Diagnosis is made after examination of the patient.When a white threadlike nematode no additional procedures are required under the patient's skin.
Treatment Treatment is the slow removal of adult worms (worm can reach a length of 80 cm).Worm for several days or even weeks slowly wound onto a roller gauze or a special device.It is also possible surgical removal of the worm under local anesthesia, but most often not available in the endemic areas of the surgeon services.
No anthelmintic preparations from guinea worm disease does not exist
In order to prevent and treat secondary bacterial infections conducted a course of antibiotics.
Use only boiled or chlorinated water.If water is not possible to disinfect the above way, then it should be filtered through dense tissue.
Female magazine www.BlackPantera.ru: Stanislav Antonov